name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer that
consists of at least 85% (m/m) of acrylonitrile units or
acrylonitrile copolymers. (See also polyacrylonitrile fibre).
name for cellulose acetate fibres in which less than 92% but
at least 74% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated.
fibres were formerly referred to as "diacetate".
||An anionic dye
characterised by its substantivity (q.v.) for protein fibres
and polyamide fibres and usually applied from an acidic or
||A loom in which the weft yarn is
propelled through the shed by means of a jet of air.
||A fabric that has a printed
pattern that covers practically the whole face of the fabric.
name for fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules
that have in the chain recurring amide groups, at least 85%
of which are joined directly to two aromatic rings and in
which imide groups may be substituted for up to 50% of the
|An area of localised wear
characterised by the presence of excessive surface hairiness
or denuded fibre and caused by chafing by, or by oblique
impact with, a hard or rough surface.
||A band (q.v.) that runs with
clearly defined edges and that differs in appearance from
the adjacent normal fabric. (It may be shady and may or may
not run parallel with the picks). Bar is a general term that
covers the following:
||a) Pick Bar
Place <set mark, stop mark>
A prominent band in a woven fabric that has one clearly
defined edge and that gradually merges into normal
fabric, and is caused by an abrupt change in pick
spacing followed by gradual reversal to normal pick
spacing. Such a bar occurs on restarting the loom
without sufficient care after:
i) pick finding,
ii) uneven weaving or pulling-back, or
iii) prolonged loom stoppage.
aa) These bars may also be referred to
as "standing places" or "pulling-back places" if the
precise cause is unknown.
bb) In knitting, the band has several
courses containing stitch lengths longer than in
adjacent normal courses and has resulted from a machine
stop that has caused changes in warp tension.
2. Weaving Bar
A band that usually shades away to normal fabric at both
It owes its appearance to a change in pick spacing, and
may repeat at regular intervals throughout an
appreciable length or even the whole length of the piece,
and is the result of some mechanical fault in the loom,
e.g. faulty gearing in the take-up motion, bent beam
gudgeons, uneven or eccentric beam ruffles, uneven
bearing surfaces at somepoint in the let-off motion, etc.
Bars of this type associated with the take-up or let-off
motions are also referred to as
||b) Shade Bar
||A band that has developed a
different colour from the adjacent fabric during (or
subsequent to) dyeing and finishing,
owing to damage to (or contamination of) otherwise
normal fabric or weft yarn prior to weaving.
||c) Tension Bar
||A band composed of weft yarn
that has been stretched more (or less) than the normal
weft prior to or during weaving.
This abnormal stretch may have been imposed during
winding by faulty manipulation or by some mechanical
fault in the
loom; during weaving by incorrect tensioning in the
shuttle; or may have arisen owing to faulty yarn having
excessively moistened at some stage and stretched more
than the normal yarn under normal applied tensions. It
appear as a cockled bar in those cases where stretch has
been sufficient. (See also cockle (fabric).
||d) Weft Bar
||A band that is solid in
appearance, runs parallel with the picks and contains
weft that is different in material, count,
filament, twist, lustre, colour or shade from the
adjacent normal weft.
||A fabric of pebbled appearance,
usually of twilled hopsack weave or broken-rib weave and
used for a variety of clothing purposes.
Barre' (Knitted Fabric)
||A clearly defined band (q.v.) or
bands that run (s) full width across an open-width fabric or
spirally in a tubular fabric, and differ (s) in appearance
from the adjacent normal fabric as the result of variation
of yarn characteristics.
NOTE: When the yarn is of a different
colour (owing to differential dyeing) from that of the rest
of the fabric, that defect is termed "barriness).
||A group of units of products of
the same type, structure, colour and finish, class and
composition, manufactured under essentially the same
conditions and essentially at the same time, and submitted
at any one time for inspection and testing.
||The processing of materials as
batches or lots in which the whole of each batch/lot is
subjected to one stage of the process at a time.
||A fabric that, owing to the
nature of the weave, shows rounded cords in the warp
direction with pronounced sunken lines between them.
NOTE: The weave on the face of the cords is
usually plain, but other weaves may be used. There are weft
floats that determine the width of the cords on the back,
and wadding ends may be used to accentuate the prominence of
||A fibre formed by the
conjunction at a spinning jet, of two fibre-forming polymers
of different properties.
a) The two components may be caused to
merge approximately side by side (bilaterally),
concentrically or as fibrils of
one component in a matrix of the other. An example is the
production of crimped fibre, e.g. a combination of polymers
of different contractive properties.
b) Although formed by a natural process,
wool and related animal fibres may exhibit a comparable dual
structure of the
||The procedure, other than by
scouring only, of improving the whiteness of a textile by
decolourising it from the grey state, with or without the
removal of the nature colouring matter or extraneous
substances (or both).
NOTE: The removal of colour from dyed or
printed textiles is usually called stripping (q.v.).
||A chemical reagent capable of
bleaching, e.g. oxidising agents such as sodium or calcium
hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, permanganates, hydrogen
peroxide, and reducing agents such as sulphur dioxide and
||Loss of dye from a coloured
textile in contact with a liquid, leading to the coloration
of the liquid or of adjacent areas (or both) of the same or
other textile (s).
||A thread in which the different
component fibres are thoroughly mixed.
||A cylindrical or slightly
tapered barrel, with or without flanges, for holding
slubbings, rovings (q.v.) or yarns. (The term is usually
qualified to indicate the purpose for which it is used, e.g.
ring bobbin, twisting bobbin, spinning bobbin, condensor
bobbin, weft bobbin).
||A bobbin that has a cylindrical
barrel and a conical or flanged base, and from which yarn
can be withdrawn over the nose, i.e. the top of the barrel.
NOTE: The shape of the fully wound bobbin
is that of a cylinder with a conical top.
Bow (Woven Fabric)
||Curvature of the warp or weft.
NOTE: A fabric is said to be warp-bowed or
weft-bowed, according to which set of threads is curved.
Weft bow may or may not extend over the full width of the
(see Breaking Extension)
|Breaking Extension <breaking
The extension/elongation produced by the breaking force,
i.e. the maximum force applied during a determination of
||The maximum tensile force
observed during a test in which the specimen is stretched
until it breaks.
|Breaking Stress <breaking
||The maximum tension (expressed
in Newton) developed in a specimen stretched to rupture.
NOTE: The force is usually related to the
area of the unstrained specimen. If the actual stress,
defined in terms of the area of the strained specimen, is
used, then its maximum value is called "actual breaking
|Breaking Tension (See
tension, as defined, is independent of the acceleration due
||Descriptive of textile materials,
particularly man-made fibres, the normal lustre of which has
not been reduce by physical or chemical means.
|Broken End (Woven
||A warp-way line where a warp
yarn is absent for part or all of a piece and that is caused
by a warp yarn break that has not been repaired.
individual filaments (usually during winding or weaving)
that results in the appearance of a fibrous or hairy surface,
which may be localised or general, in a fabric made from
flat continuous filament yarn.
||A pick that is present for only
part of the fabric width.
||A coppery lustre on the surface
of a fabric and caused by the presence of excessive dyestuff
during dyeing or by precipitation of the dyestuff during the
dyeing process. (See also gilding).
||An area of localised compression
within a fabric.
||The third of the three basic
motions in weaving, in which the pick of the weft yarn(s)
left in the warp shed is forced to the fell (q.v.) of the
||A machine in
which heavy bowls rotate in contact under mechanical
NOTE: The bowls may be unheated or one may
be a thick-walled steel shell heated internally. All bowls
may rotate at the same surface speed, or one highly polished
and heated bowl may rotate at a higher surface speed than
the rest. In certain specialised machines, e.g. for knitted
goods, two adjacent bowls may be heated, or, in the case of
a laundry calender, one bowl works against a steam chest
shaped to the curvature of the bowl. (See also friction
finish obtained by passing the fabric between heavy bowls of
a calender, which results in the fabric being so flattened
as to close the interstices between the yarns.
composed of at least 90% (m/m) of carbon, and commonly
produced by carbonising organic polymers in filamentary
||A firm warp-faced suiting that
has a steep twill weave with double twill lines separated by
pronounced grooves that are formed by the weft.
||A component in cotton of trash
(q.v.) in the form of a heterogeneous assortment of
vegetable fragments, most of them being small pieces of leaf,
leaf bract (a small form of leaf growing beneath the boll)
NOTE: Broken fragments of twig and small
branches, particularly when brittle, may be broken up
further in ginning and are then also regarded as "chaff".
Another component of chaff is the silvery lining of the boll
interior, sometimes termed "shale", particularly the
partitions dividing the locules before the boll opens.
In a weft-knitted fabric, a defect that consists of ill-defined
areas of varying density attributable to the use of yarn of
b) In webs and slivers, a defect that
consists of ill-defined areas of varying density.
c) In a dyed fabric, a defect that consists
of random, faintly defined areas of varying density.
d) In a bleached fabric, a defect that
consists of opaque patches, usually visible only in
||A textile fabric on one or both
surfaces of which has been formed, in situ, a layer or
layers of firmly adhering coating material.
||The crimped, rippled, wavy or
pebbled appearance of a fabric where distortion of the
structure has occurred as the result of non-uniform
relaxation or shrinkage.
NOTE: This defect may result from
variations in the tension of the ends (q.v.) or picks at the
time of weaving, from variations in the degree of stretch
imposed on the yarn during earlier processes or from the
differences in contraction of two or more yarns used
accidentally or intentionally in the fabric. The defect may
be distributed over a large area of fabric or may be
confined to isolated stripes, bars or streaks.
characteristic of the visual sensation that enables the eye
to distinguish differences in its quality, such as may be
caused by differences in the spectral distribution of light
rather than by differences in spatial distribution or
fluctuations with time.
b) As (a) above, but applied directly to
the stimulus or the source (primary or secondary) giving
rise to the sensation. (For brevity, the stimulus is often
referred to as the colour).
c) The property of an object or stimulus or
quality of visual sensation, distinguished by its appearance
of redness, greenness, etc., in contradistinction to
whiteness, greyness, blackness (i.e. chromatic colour is
contradistinctinve to achromatic colour).
||A polymer obtained when the
compounds used in its formation react together, with the
elimination of a further compound such as water,
formaldehyde or hydrochloric acid.
||The amount of moisture present
in a textile in its raw, or partly or wholly manufactured
||a) To allow
textile materials (raw materials, fibres, slivers, yarns and
fabrics) to come to hygroscopic equilibrium with the
surrounding atmosphere, or with the standard atmosphere for
b) to add relatively small quantities of
water to textile materials (raw materials, fibres, slivers,
yarns and fabrics).
NOTE: The object of conditioning is to
bring textiles to an agreed moisture content for sale, or to
facilitate later processing. Among the methods used for
applying water are:
1. mechanical means during gilling (q.v.)
2. the use of conditioning machines; and
3. storing in an atmosphere of very high
||A yarn produced at the spinning
frame by feeding a yarn through the delivery rollers only,
simultaneously with the spinning of the staple fibres
NOTE: The yarn fed through at the delivery
rollers only is usually known as the "core", and the other
component is known as the "wrapper". The core may be of
continuous-filament yarn or of spun yarn. If the core is of
spun yarn, the direction of its twist is usually the same as
that of the complete yarn. Core-spun yarns are made for
decorative purposes or, more commonly, for strengthening the
wrapper for facilitating subsequent processes. When used for
strengthening, the core may, after it has served its purpose,
be removed by solvent or other chemical action, e.g. the
removal of calcium alginate filament yarn by an alkaline
scour or of a cotton yarn by carbonising. The core is often
retained for strengthening the resultant fabric as is the
case if nylon or polyester continuous-filament yarns are
||The number of dents (q.v.) per
Cover Factor (Woven Fabric)
||A number, derived from the
number of warp (or weft) threads per unit length and the
linear density of the yarns, that indicates the extent to
which the area of a woven fabric is covered by the warp (or
a) A woven fabric has, therefore, two cover
factors, i.e. the warp cover factor and the weft cover
b) In the tex system (q.v.) the cover
factor is calculated by the expression: "number of threads
per centimetre x 1 divided by the square root of the tex."
||An unintentional fold in a
fabric that may be introduced at some stage in processing
and that is not readily removed by those means normally
available to a garment maker, e.g. steam pressing. (See also
||A mark left in a fabric after a
crease has been removed, and that may be caused by
mechanical damage to fibres at the fold, by variation in
treatment owing to the constriction along the fold, or by
disturbance of the fabric structure.
||a) In Fibre
||The waviness of a fibre,
i.e. the condition in which the axis of a fibre under
minimum external stress departs from a
straight line and follows a simple or a complex or an
irregular wavy path.
1. In its simplest form, crimp is
uniplanar and regular, i.e. it resembles a sine wave,
but it is frequently much more
complicated and irregular. An example of three-dimensional
crimp is helical.
2. Crimp may be expressed numerically
as the number of waves (crimps) per unit length, or as
the difference between
the distance between two points on the fibre when it is
relaxed and when it is straightened under suitable
expressed as a percentage of the relaxed distance.
||b) In Yarn
||The waviness or distortion
of a yarn owing to interlacing in the fabric.
1. In woven fabric, the crimp is
measured by the relation between the length of the
fabric test specimen and the corresponding length of
yarn when it is removed therefrom and straightened under
suitable tension. The crimp may then be expressed
numerically as a percentage or as a ratio, i.e. the
ratio of yarn length to fabric length. In both methods,
fabric length is the basis.
2. Although this definition could
logically be applied to knitted fabrics or fabrics of
pile construction, it is usual to employ special terms,
e.g. stitch length, terry ratio.
||A measure of crease resistance
specified quantitatively in terms of certain parameters such
as crease recovery angle.
||A term used to indicate the
capability of a textile material to resist creases or
recover from creases (or both) incidental to use.
||A relaxation shrinkage that
occurs under normal conditions of storage.
||A weave that has a random
distribution of floats that produces an all-over pebbled
effect, so disguising the weave repeat.
||Wrinkles of varying degrees of
intensity and size that resemble the pattern of birds'
footprints and that have been caused by the overloading of a
||a) A process
that follows the addition of a finish to a textile fabric
and in which appropriate conditions are used to effect a
NOTE: Heat treatment for several minutes is
common, but higher temperatures for short times and high
moisture regain (moist curing) are also used.
b) The vulcanisation of rubber, whether by
the application of heat or by passing through cold sulphuryl
chloride solution (cold cure).
Fabric <laminated fabric>
||A fabric composed of two or more
preformed layers, at least one of which is a textile fabric,
that adhere closely together by means of an added adhesive
or by the adhesive properties of one or more of the
||A yarn composed of one or more
filaments that run the whole length of the yarn.
NOTE: Yarns of one filament and of more than one filament
are known as monofilament and multi-filament yarns
||A rib fabric (q.v.) that has
a) The ribs are referred to as "cords".
b) Not all fabrics that have prominent ribs
are covered by this term.
||A system of spinning in which
roller delivery, twisting and winding onto a package operate
simultaneously and without interruption, as, for example, in
cap, centrifugal, flyer and ring spinning.
||The reciprocal of the dynamic
viscosity of a solution of cellulose of prescribed
concentration in a cuprammonium solvent of prescribed
composition, measure under precisely defined conditions.
NOTE: These solutions commonly exhibit non-Newtonian
flow behaviour. Cuprammonium fluidity does not therefore
have absolute physical significance as does the fluidity of
a Newtonian liquid, although it has hitherto been expressed
in reciprocal poises. It is considered that it should be
regarded as an empirical quantity and because of this, the
results are given in units of cuprammonium fluidity and are
not linked to a specific unit.
fabric in which different weaves, generally satin and sateen
(although twill or other binding weaves may sometimes be
introduced) interchange to form the pattern.
process in which the fabric is wound tightly onto a
perforated roller and either immersed in hot water, which is
also circulated through the fabric (wet decatising) or has
steam blown through it (dry decatising).
NOTE: Decatising is used mainly to improve
the handle and appearance of worsted fabrics.
pin-stenter marks in the body of the fabric (i.e. clear of
the selvedge), and that therefore reduce the usable width of
A fault that reduces the ability of the article to perform
its intended function or, if it were to appear in a
prominent position in the article, would readily be seen and
objected to by an ordinary person who might contemplate
purchasing the article in a retail shop.
A fault that, if it were to appear in a prominent position
in a garment or manufactured article made from the fabric,
would readily be seen and objected to by an ordinary person
who might contemplate purchasing such a garment or
manufactured article in a retail shop.
A test sample or a test specimen or a set of test specimens
that fails in one or more respects to comply with the
relevant requirements of the specification or standard
Degree of Crystallinity
||The amount, expressed as a
percentage by mass, or linear polymer that is generally
present in a crystalline form, the remainder of the polymer
being present in an amorphous state.
NOTE: There are several methods used for
the determination of the amount of crystalline polymer in a
man-made fibre. The results obtained differ according to the
method used, so comparisons should be limited to one method
||The extent to which the
molecules in a fibre lie in the direction of the fibre
||The unit of a reed that contains
a reed wire and the space between adjacent reed wires.
||The colour quality (q.v.), an
increase in which is associated with an increase in the
quantity of colorant present, all other conditions (viewing,
etc.) remaining the same.
||A substance that assist the
removal of dirt by emulsification or dissolution of the dirt
particles and normally has the power of suspending the dirt
in the cleansing liquid.
||Descriptive of fibres of the
same generic class, but that have potentially different
dyeing properties from those of the normal fibre.
||a) An immersion
of relatively short duration of a textile in a liquid.
b) The depth of liquor in the inner
cylinder of a rotating-cage washing machine.
c) A term sometimes used to describe the
treatment of cellulosic material with a chemic (q.v.).
||A class of water-insoluble dyes
originally introduced for dyeing cellulose acetate and
usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions.
||An area where the weave of the
fabric has been disarranged, without damage to the yarns.
||A mechanism attached to a loom
for controlling the movement of the heald shafts.
NOTE: It is required when the number of
heald shafts or the number of picks in a repeat of a pattern,
or both, are beyond the capacity of the tappet shedding.
||A weave that has a pattern that
requires the use of a dobby mechanism during weaving. (See
||A straight-edge whose function
is to remove surplus material (e.g. filling, coating
material, printing paste) from the surface of the rollers
used to apply the material or from a fabric surface to which
the material was applied.
Streak <doctor streak>
||A lengthways streak of excess
colour or excess coating on a fabric and that has been
caused by irregularity between the edge of the doctor blade
and the surface of the fabric or roller.
Dope-Eyed <mass-coloured, spun-coloured, spun-dyed>
||Descriptive of man-made fibres
in which the colorant has been incorporated before the
filament is formed.
NOTE: Preferably referred to as mass-coloured
||Operations by which slivers
(q.v.) are blended (or doubled), levelled and, by drafting
(q.v.), reduced to the stage of roving (q.v.). (In the
cotton industry, the term is applied exclusively to
processing at one machine, namely the draw frame).
NOTE: Various systems of drawing are
practised but, with the advent of man-made staple fibres and
recent machinery development, the boundaries between the
various systems are becoming less distinct. In the worsted
industry, the systems differ mainly within the means of
fibre control between the major pairs of drafting rollers
and the methods of driving the spindles and bobbins, if
these are employed.
The various worsted systems are:
a) American system (oil-combed tops).
b) Anglo-continental system (oil-combed
c) Cone system (oil-combed tops).
d) Continental system (dry-combed tops).
e) Open system (oil-combed tops).
f) Raper system (oil-combed tops).
||The stretching to near the limit
of plastic flow of synthetic fibres of low molecular
NOTE: This process orientates the polymer
chains in the amorphous areas of the fibres in the direction
of its length and this results in an increase in the
crystalline regions. The ways of carrying out this process
are by "hot drawing" or "cold drawing" (i.e. with or without
the intentional application of heat).
||Extruded yarn that has been
subjected to a stretching or drawing process which
orientates the long-chain molecules of which the yarn is
composed, in the direction of the filament axis.
NOTE: On further stretching, such yarn
possesses elastic extension as compared with the plastic
flow of undrawn yarn.
||A warp-faced piece-dyed twill
fabric that has a stout texture and a higher number of
threads per centimetre in the warp than in the weft.
NOTE: Some drills are made with five-end
satin weave and it is recommended that these be called satin
of worsted yarns produced from dry-combed top.
b) Descriptive of coarse linen yarn spun
from air-dry roving (q.v.).
c) Descriptive of man-made filaments the
coagulation of which is effected by evaporation of the
solvent from the spinning solution. (See also wet-spun (b).
||A closely woven plain-weave
fabric, traditionally made from cotton or linen yarns, and
similar to canvas.
NOTE: The terms "canvas" and "duck" have
become almost synonymous and are often qualified by terms
which indicate the use of the fabric, e.g. navy canvas,
artist's canvas, duck suiting, belting duck.
of textile materials the normal lustre (q.v.) of which has
been reduced by physical or chemical means.
b) The colour quality, an increase in which
may be compared with the effect of the addition of a small
quantity of neutral grey
dye to the dyestuff, and such that a colour match cannot be
made by adjusting the strength.
||Any type of finish that is
reasonably resistant to normal usage and to washing or dry-cleaning
||A colorant that has
substantively (q.v.) for a substrate, either inherent or
induced by reactants.
||The treatment with a dye to
obtain a persistent modification in the colour of a fibre.
||The liquid that contains the dye
and the reagents necessary for dyeing.
|Dye Stain (Defect)
||A discrete area of a colour
different from that of the adjacent parts of the fabric.
||A selvedge that varies in width.
NOTE: Variations in weft tension or lack of
control of the warp ends within the selvedge may result in
such unevenness. Pulled-in selvedges are caused by pulling
in of the edges by isolated tight picks. Dog-legged
selvedges are the result of the characteristic gradual
change in weft tension that occurs as some types of weft
pirn are unwound, regular changes in selvedge width being
present at each pirn change.
||The extent of
the ability of a stressed textile to recover its original
size and shape immediately after removal of the stress.
that has high extensibility together with rapid and
substantially complete elastic recovery.
||An increase in
NOTE: The increase may be expressed:
a) in units of length,
b) as a percentage of the initial length,
c) as a fraction of the initial length.
A length of finished fabric of less than a customary unit (piece)
1. Each passage of a length of fabric
through a machine, for example in jig-dyeing.
2. A joint between pieces of fabric
caused by, for example, damage or short lengths in weaving,
or damage in bleaching, dyeing and finishing.
An individual strand.
An individual warp thread.
||A break of a warp thread in the
loom, that, if not corrected, leads to a fault. (See also
||Uneven dyeing that consists of a
difference in colour between the bulk and the end of a
length of fabric.
||The extent of the ability of a
textile to stretch when a tensile force is applied to it.
assembly of fibres or yarns (or both) that has substantial
surface area in relation to its thickness, and sufficient
mechanical strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion.
NOTE: Fabrics are most commonly woven or
knitted, but the term also applies to assemblies produced by
lace-making, tufting, felting, net-making and non-woven
||The side of a
fabric that is intended to be used outermost.
in opposite directions and in equal numbers in adjacent
elements of yarn, silver (q.v.) or similar aggregations of
fibres or filaments, and that are characterised by their
NOTE: False twist may be used as follows:
a) To produce effects, e.g.
1. the entanglement of fibres while false-twisted;
2. a measure of permanence to the twisted form by heat-setting
the false-twisted yarns.
b) To assist processing, e.g.
1. the passage of sliver from "noble" comb to can;
2. the attenuation of rovings (q.v.) on a condenser ring
||The property of resistance to
the agency named (e.g. to washing, light, rubbing, crocking,
gas fumes, etc.).
|Fell (of the
||The line of termination of the
fabric in the loom, i.e. the line formed by the last weft
||A unit of
matter characterised by flexibility, fineness and a high
ratio of length to thickness.
The extent (see (b) below) of crimped fibre substantially
freed from external restraint, and measured with respect to
its general axis of orientation.
b) Fibre Extent
The distance in a given direction between two planes (each
perpendicular to the given direction) that just enclose the
fibre without intersecting it.
1. If the fibre is in a sliver (q.v.) (or yarn, roving, etc.)
and the direction of the extent is not specified, the "given
direction" is to be taken as the axis of the sliver.
2. It should be noted that the extent of a fibre is a
variable property that differs from the straightened length
of the fibre according to circumstances; thus in a card web,
the example, where the fibres are in a state of considerable
disarray, the extent of a fibre after it has been passed
through one or more drawing processes. If, for any reason, a
fibre is subject to a stretching force, its extent in the
direction of the force may be greater than its straightened
c) Staple Length
A measurement by which a sample of fibrous raw material is
characterised according to its technically most important
The staple length of wool is usually taken as the length of
the longer fibres in a hand-prepared tuft or "staple" in its
naturally crimped and wavy condition (see crimp). In cotton,
on the other hand, the staple length corresponds very
closely to the modal or most frequent length of the fibres
when measured in a straightened condition.
||A fibre of indefinite length.
||Damage to multi-filament yarns
that results in broken filaments.
||A yarn composed of one or more
filaments (q.v.) that run the whole length of the yarn.
NOTE: Yarns of one filament and yarns of
several filaments are referred to as mono-filament and multi-filament,
Finish (n) (finishing)
||Terms used broadly, as follows,
to include added materials, the process employed (finishing)
and the final result:
a) A substance or a mixture of substances
added to textile materials at any stage to impart desired
b) The type of process, physical or
chemical, applied to produce a desired effect.
c) Such properties, for example smoothness,
drape, lustre, or crease resistance, produced by (a) or (b)
above (or both).
d) The state of the textile material as it
leaves a previous processor.
NOTE: The mechanical operations of spinning,
weaving and knitting, though they may largely determine the
result, are excluded.
||To apply or produce a finish.
||To render a textile incapable of
supporting rapid combustion.
||To render a textile incapable of
propagating flame beyond the edges of a charred area
produced by the application of a specific test flame.
||A multi-filament yarn with no
NOTE: The term is still used in respect of
these yarns after a small amount of twist has been
introduced by subsequent processing, e.g. as in over-end
||The extent of the ability of a
textile to be flexed repeatedly without being ruptured.
||A length of yarn on the surface
of a woven fabric between two consecutive intersections of
the yarn with the yarns woven at right angles to it.
NOTE: A float is designated by the number
of threads over or under which the floating yarn passes.
||Waste fibres which fly out into
the atmosphere during carding, drawing, spinning and other
||A weft yarn with broken
filaments resulting from abrasion during weft insertion,
winding or excessive tension.
||a) An edging or
border of loose threads, tassels or loops.
NOTE: The edging or border may be produced
by the constituent threads or by threads added to a fabric
after weaving or knitting.
b) A trimming (narrow fabric) that has, on
one or both edges, cut or looped weft threads that form a
decorative edge, and that are sometimes bunched or knotted
together to increase the decorative effect.
1. Tassels, balls or other adornments may
2. The part of the fringe comprising both
warp and weft is known as the heading.
3. The part of the fringe containing only
weft is known as the skirt.
||A length of fabric used in
processing to lead a piece of fabric through the equipment
and so enable the piece to be processed from end to end,
with minimum wastage.
||The process of passing fabric
through a calender in which a highly polished, usually
heated steel bowl rotates at a higher surface speed than the
softer (e.g. cotton-filled or paper-filled) bowl against
which it works, thus producing a glaze on the face of the
fabric that is in contact with the steel bowl.
NOTE: The friction ratio is the ratio
between the peripheral speed of the faster steel bowl and
that of the slower bowl and is normally in the range 1½:1 to
|Fluorescent Brightener <optical
brightener, optical whitener>
||A substance that is added to a
textile (uncoloured or coloured) to increase the apparent
light reflectance in the visible region by the conversion of
ultraviolet radiation into visible light and so to increase
the apparent brightness or whiteness of the textile.
Grey Goods <greige goods, loomstate fabric>
||A fabric in
the condition in which it leaves the loom or knitting
machine, i.e. before any bleaching, dyeing or finishing
treatment has been given to it.
NOTE: In some countries, particularly on
the North American continent, the term "greige" (or griege)
is used. For woven goods, the term "loomstate" is frequently
used as an alternative. In the linen and lace trades, the
term "brown goods" is used.
assessment of the roughness, smoothness, harshness,
pliability, thickness, etc., of a textile material and that
is obtained by the sense of touch.
of twill weaves in which the direction of twill is so
reversed (usually by drafting) as to produce stripes that
resemble herring bones.
pressure higher than atmospheric pressure with the object of
raising the temperature of the dye liquor above its normal
NOTE: The term "pressure dyeing" in this
connection is deprecated. (See also pack dyeing).
<mat weave, matt weave, panama weave>
|A modification of a plain weave
in which two or more warp yarns weave together as one and
two or more weft yarns weave together as one.
NOTE: The basic hopsack weaves may be
modified in a number of ways, such as:
a) by introducing additional interlacings
to give a firmer cloth, e.g. stitched hopsack weave;
b) by arranging the interlacing in diagonal
lines, e.g. twilled hopsack weave.
||The attribute of colour whereby
it is recognised as being predominately red, green, blue or
print-off of defects, e.g. slubs, under excessive rolling
International Grey Scales
||Two series of
pairs of chips that show increasing contrast within pairs,
and are used visually for comparing the differences in
colour of textile specimens or the degrees of staining of
transfer cloths attached to the test specimens, that occur
during colour fastness testing.
a) Basic Scale for Assessing Change in
A scale that consists of five pairs of non-glossy grey-coloured
chips, and in which a fastness rating of 5 (indicating no
colour change) at one end of the scale is represented by two
identical grey chips, and a fastness rating of 1 (indicating
a severe colour change) at the other end of the scale is
represented by a pair of grey chips having a colour
difference of 13,6 Cielab units.
b) Basic Scale for Assessing Staining
A scale that consists of one pair of white and four pairs of
non-glossy grey- and white-coloured chips, and in which a
fastness rating of 5 (indicating severe staining) at one end
of the scale is represented by the pair of white chips, and
a fastness rating of 1 (indicating severe staining) at the
other end of the scale is represented by a pair of chips
having a colour difference of 34,1 Cielab units.
NOTE: Both scales may be augmented to form
a 9-step scale by the provision of similar chips that
illustrate the perceived colour differences corresponding to
the half-step fastness ratings.
A term in general use in the knitting industry, and applied
to mechanisms for selection of knitting elements.
A shedding (q.v.) mechanism (attached to the loom) that
controls up to several hundred warp threads individually and
thus enables intricate figured designs to be produced.
A machine for dyeing fabric in rope form and in which the
fabric is carried through a narrow throat by dye liquor
circulated at high velocity.
b) A machine for dyeing garments and in
which the garments are circulated by jets of liquid rather
than by mechanical means.
machine in which fabric, in open width, is transferred
repeatedly from one roller to another and passes each time
through a dyebath of relatively small volume.
NOTE: Jigs are also frequently used for
scouring, bleaching and finishing.
Limit for Acceptable Quality (LAQ)
||The number of
defects permissible per 100 square metres of fabric.
||A component of
a garment or other article and that consists of a single
layer or multiple layers of fabric attached along one or
more edges to the main fabric.
broken lint fibres and fuzz fibres that are removed from the
ginned cotton seed by a special ginning (q.v.) process.
||The ratio between the mass of
liquor employed in any treatment and the mass of fibrous
dyeing effect in which there is a variation in colour
between that of the selvedge and that of the centre of a
||A machine for producing fabric
a) Automatic Loom
A loom on which the shuttles or pirns are changed
b) Circular Loom
A loom on which the shuttles travel simultaneously on a
circular path through a wave shed (q.v.).
c) Shuttle Loom
A loom that uses a shuttle (q.v.) to insert the weft.
d) Shuttleless Loom
A loom in which the weft is drawn from a stationary supply
and is inserted by means other than a shuttle.
three main types of shuttleless looms:
1. Gripper-Projectile <gripper-shuttle>
loom in which the weft thread is taken through the shed by a
projectile fitted with
a jaw that grips the end of the weft thread during insertion
of the pick.
2. Jet Loom in which the weft thread is
taken through the shed by a jet of liquid or air.
NOTE: Because of the nature of these weft
insertion methods, the weft yarn in the fabric is in lengths
of one or two picks.
Consequently, means are usually provided for forming
acceptable edges. (See also selvedge).
3. Rapier Loom in which the means for
carrying the weft thread through the shed is fixed in the
end of a rigid rod or of a flexible ribbon, that (in both
cases) is positively driven. Rapier looms may have a single
rapier to carry the weft across the full width, or two
rapiers that operate from opposite sides of the loom.
||All fibres or
filaments manufactured by man as distinct from those that
The treatment of cellulosic textiles, in yarn or fabric
form, with a concentrated solution of a caustic alkali
whereby the fibres are swollen, their strength and dye
affinity is increased and their handle (q.v.) is modified.
NOTE: Stretching the swollen materials
while wet with caustic alkali and then washing the alkali
has the additional effect of enhancing the lustre (q.v.).
b) The process of steeping cellulose in a
concentrated caustic soda solution.
that is judged to be satisfactory under a particular
illuminant but not under other illuminants of different
||A marked change in the colour of
an object with a change in the spectral composition of the
light by which it is viewed.
NOTE: Metamerism can be judged only with
reference to the changes occurring in other objects in the
fields of view as the illumination is changed.
of an added substance, e.g. a dye or an alkali, from one
part of a textile material to another.
||A weave that has open spaces
between groups of warp yarns and between groups of weft
yarns and a similar appearance to that of a leno weave
Moire` Finish <watered effect>
||A wavy, rippled or watered
appearance on a woven rib fabric and that is produced by the
action of heat and heavy pressure from rollers.
NOTE: The appearance is caused by
differences in the reflection of light by the flattened and
the unflattened portions of the ribs, and there is no
definite repeat in the pattern.
||The mass of water in any form in
a textile, determined by using prescribed methods and
expressed as a percentage of the mass of the moist textile.
(See also moisture regain).
||The mass of
water in any form in a textile, determined by using
prescribed methods and expressed as a percentage of the mass
of the dried textile.
||A yarn composed of one filament
that runs the whole length of the yarn.
|Mixed End <thick
end, wrong end>
||A warp yarn that is
unintentionally different in material, linear density,
filament, twist, lustre or colour, etc., from the adjacent
normal warp yarns.
Nylon Fibre <polyamide fibre>
name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer in
which the linkage of the simple chemical compound or
compounds used in its production takes place through the
formation of amide groups.
NOTE: Polyamides are distinguished from one
another by the number of carbon atoms in the recurring unit
or units for polyamides made from two reactants, e.g. Nylon
6 and Nylon 6.6.
of spun yarns by a process in which the sliver (q.v.) or
roving (q.v.) is opened or separated into its individual
fibres or tufts and is subsequently reassembled in the
spinning element into a yarn. (See also spinning).
The degree of parallelism of fibres, usually as a result of
a combing or attenuating action on fibre assemblies that
causes the fibres to be substantially parallel to the main
axis of the web (q.v.) or strand.
b) A preferred direction of linear
molecules in the fine structure of fibres and usually caused
by so stretching an extruded fibre that the length direction
of the molecules tends to lie parallel to the main axis of
c) In the case of natural fibres, a
preferred direction of linear molecules laid down during
growth, e.g. a spiral around the fibre axis in cotton.
mass obtained by drying at a temperature of 105-110 °C.
NOTE: A ventilated drying oven (that has a
positively induced air current) or other suitable oven must
be used for determination of the oven-dry mass.
||A modification of plain weave in
which two warp yarns weave together as one.
application of a liquor or a paste to textiles, either by
passing the material through a bath and subsequently through
squeeze rollers, or by passing it through squeeze rollers,
the bottom one of which carries the liquor or paste.
||A process of
continuous dyeing in which the fabric in open width is
padded with dyestuff and, if necessary, with a reducing
agent, and is then steamed. (See also padding).
lightweight, synthetic fibre or silk fabric with high
bursting and tearing strengths.
||Degradation caused by the
absorption of light (particularly ultraviolet light) and
consequent chemical reaction.
Pick (n) <shot>
A single operation of the weft-insertion mechanism in
b) One or more weft threads inserted
between successive beat-ups. (See beating-up).
||To pass the weft through the
warp shed in weaving.
||A woven fabric in which the
alternate picks are of different colours or yarns.
NOTE: If the weft is inserted by shuttles,
this fabric must be produced on a pick-at-will loom (q.v.).
||a) The second
of the three basic motions in weaving, in which the weft is
passed through the warp shed.
b) The rectification of the face and the
back of a carpet after manufacture, including insertion of
missing tufts, replacement of incorrect ones and repair of
broken yarns in the backing (local mending).
c) A process carried out before the final
stage of fabric finishing to remove, by hand, any
contamination (such as kemp (see kemp fibres), wrong fibre,
coloured hair, etc.) that has not been removed by previous
NOTE: This process is carried out in
particular during the finishing of suitings, face-finished
fabrics and cream or off-white fabrics.
||The dyeing of
fabrics in the piece.
||Fabric sold by
or from the piece.
||The simplest of all weave
interlacings, in which the odd warp threads operate over one
and under one weft thread throughout the fabric and the even
warp threads reverse this order to under one, over one
NOTE: A plain weave does not necessarily
result in a plain surface effect or plain design in the
fabric, e.g. variation in the yarn counts warp to weft or
throughout the warp or weft (or both) and variation of the
thread spacing warp to weft can produce rib effects (see
taffetta, poult, faille and grosgrain), while colour
patterning of the warp or weft (or both) results in colour-and-weave
||The generic name for fibres made
from a synthetic linear polymer that contains, in the chain,
at least 85% (m/m) of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and
terphthalic acid, e.g. poly(ethyleneterephthalate).
Polyethylene Fibre <polythene fibre>
||The generic name for fibres made
from a synthetic linear polymer of ethylene and that has the
a) high-density polyethylene *HDPE),
0,96g/m², produced by low-pressure polymerisation; and
b) low-density polyethylene (LDPE),
0,93g/m², produced by high-pressure polymerisation.
||A combination or association of
molecules that may be of one compound or two or more
compounds that react, simultaneously or consecutively, to
form a regular system of molecules (usually of high
molecular mass) which behaves and reacts primarily as one
unit, termed a polymer.
NOTE: Not all polymers are fibre-forming;
fibres are formed from linear polymers only.
||A regenerated cellulose fibre
that is characterised by a high initial wet modulus of
elasticity and a relatively low degree of swelling in sodium
||A fibre made from a synthetic
linear polymer obtained by polymerising an unsaturated
hydrocarbon (e.g. ethylene CH²-CH² or propylene CH² = CH-CH3)
to give a linear saturated hydrocarbon. (See also
polyethylene fibre and polypropylene fibre).
||The generic name for fibres made
from a synthetic linear polymer of propylene and that has
the following structure:
||Small blemishes that
individually do not warrant a string (q.v.) but that, when
the fabric is assessed overall, render it unacceptable (in
part or in whole).
||A faulty fabric in which the
warp or weft yarns show through the covering yarns when not
so required by the construction.
||An impression or an area of
greater lustre in fabric, caused by irregularities of
pressure during the finishing process.
||The reproduction of a pattern
onto a textile material by applying a suitable substance by
means of an engraved surface, a stencil or other patterning
||Resistant to a specified agency
either by reason of the physical structure or the chemical
non-reactivity of the textile, or arising from a treatment
designed to impart the desired characteristics.
a) Proofing treatments should be defined by
specified limits ascertained by tests, and the use of the
term should be related to the limiting conditions.
b) The indiscriminate use of this term is
deprecated, and its substitution by words such as "resistant",
"retardant" or "repellent" in the appropriate context is
||Descriptive of material that has
been treated to render its resistant to a specified agency.
NOTE: The efficacy of a proofing treatment
is normally defined by a limit that is related to a specific
test procedure, and the use of the term should be related to
||A blob of, or excess of,
proofing agent adhering to the fabric but that can usually
be removed quite easily.
||An undulation in the fabric,
caused by wrong conditions during finishing, e.g. during
Pulled Pile <pulled threads> (terry fabric)
||Areas (continuous or
discontinuous) where the terry pile is broken or missing or
||A fibre made from a synthetic
linear polymer in which the chief recurring unit is:
circulation of dye liquor through packages of fibre, yarn or
fabric, without limitation of temperature.
NOTE: The use of the term "pressure dyeing"
in this connection is deprecated. (See also high-temperature
of a layer of protruding fibres on the surface of fabrics by
brushing, teazling or rubbing.
NOTE: The fabric, in open width, is passed
between rotating rollers covered with teazles, fine wires,
carborundum, etc., whereby the surface fibres are lifted or
broken to give the required effect.
||A dye that, under suitable
conditions, is capable of reacting chemically with a
substrate to form a covalent dye-substrate linkage.
crack or disturbance of the structure in a woven fabric,
caused by a reed misdraw or a damaged or defective reed.
||The ratio of the actual pressure
of the water vapour in the atmosphere to the saturation
pressure of water vapour at the same temperature. (The ratio
is usually expressed as a percentage).
of strains and stresses in textile materials.
||A shrinkage induced by the
relaxation of strains present in a textile.
NOTE: Strains of a temporary nature can be
relaxed to a varied degree, e.g. by steam pressing or by
immersion in water.
shrinkage that remains in a fibre, yarn or fabric after
treatment designed to reduce or eliminate shrinkage.
NOTE: The expression is commonly used with
reference to heat-shrinkage properties of synthetic polymer
fibre after it has been heat-set.
||The actual linear
density of a plied (folded or cabled) yarn.
|A long crease
mark (q.v.) in a dyed or finished textile and that runs
approximately in the length direction.
NOTE: The marks are caused during wet
processing in the rope form and may be the result of:
a) for formation of creases along which abrasion or felting
may occur; or
b) imperfect penetration or circulation of the processing
||A canvas that
is used for the manufacture of sails.
A fabric made in sateen weave.
A weft-faced weave in which the binding places are arranged
with a view to producing a smooth fabric surface that is
free from twill (q.v.).
NOTE: To prevent confusion with "satin", it
is preferable to refer to this as "weft sateen weave".
A fabric made in satin weave.
A warp-faced weave in which the binding places are arranged
with a view to producing a smooth fabric surface, free from
NOTE: To prevent confusion with "sateen",
it is preferable to refer to this as "warp satin weave".
||The treatment of textile
materials in aqueous or other solutions in order to remove
natural fats, waxes, proteins and other constituents, as
well as dirt, oil and other impurities.
NOTE: The treatment required to produce a
refined textile varies with the condition and type of fibre
||A generic term
for a low-quality plain-weave fabric of the muslin type with
traditional cover factors for both warp and weft of about 4.
NOTE: The mass per unit area of the fabric
will vary with the 35-70 g/m² when the fabric is made from
||A particular form of pressure
mark (q.v.) in a fabric, and that is produced by the relief
print-off of defects such as slubs or seams joining lengths
of fabric, under excessive rolling tension or by contraction
on the roll during wet processing.
that occur at regular intervals across part or all of the
fabric width as the result of tension variation in the
sections during section warping (q.v.) or because of
differential dyeability of the warp yarns.
Yorkshire Warping, Scotch Warping and Silk-System Warping
A two-stage machine method of preparing a warp on beam
and that consists of:
1. winding the warp in sections onto a
reel (drum, mill or swift); or
2. beaming-off the complete warp from
the reel onto a warp beam.
b) A Two-Stage Machine Method of preparing
a warp on beam and that consists of:
1. winding "section" beams; or
2. assembling "section" beams in "warp-beam"
longitudinal edges of a fabric that are formed during
weaving with the weft not only turning at the edges but also
passing continuously across the width of the fabric from
NOTE: Selvedges are often up to 20mm wide
and may differ from the body of the fabric in construction
or weave or both, or they may be of exactly the same
construction as the body of the fabric and be separated from
it by yarns of a different colour. Although selvedges may
contain fancy effects or may have brand names or fabric
descriptions woven into or printed on them, their main
purposes is to give strength to the edges of the fabric so
that it will behave satisfactorily in weaving and subsequent
a) Leno Edge
A set of threads that interlace with a leno weave
(q.v.) either at the edge or in the body of a fabric. In the
latter case, it prevents fraying when the fabric is severed
in the direction of the warp.
NOTE: When in the body of the fabric, a
leno edge is often referred to as a "central selvedge". (See
b) Sealed Edge
The cut edge of a fabric that has been treated by
heat or chemical means to prevent fraying of the edge.
c) Shuttleless-Loom Edge
1. In some cases, either one or both edges
are different from the normal woven selvedge in that the
weft is held in position at the turn by threads other than
the warp threads, e.g. by the use of an independent thread
to lock the weft in position at the edge, or by interlocking
of the weft threads. In narrow-fabric weaving this type of
edge is often called a "needleloom selvedge".
2. In other cases, the weft is severed just
beyond the edge of the fabric and the cut end is tucked into
the shed (q.v.) formed on the next pick.
|Denotes the spacing of ends or
picks, or both, and is expressed as the number of threads
NOTE: The state of the fabric at the time
should be described, e.g. loom, grey, finished.
||The process of
conferring dimensional stability on fibres, yarns or fabrics,
generally by means of moist or dry heat.
NOTE: The operation of setting is applied
to textile materials of all kinds but assumes special
significance in the treatment of synthetic-polymer materials
such as nylon, polyester, etc.
||A common term loosely used to
describe broadly a particular colour or depth, e.g. pale
shade, 2% shade, mode shade, fashion shade.
||To bring about,
in dyeing, relatively small modifications in the colour of a
substrate by adding further small amounts of dye, especially
with the object of obtaining a more accurate match with a
required pattern or colour.
||A side-to-side change in colour
across the width of a fabric.
Shed <warp shed>
formed when the warp threads are separated in the operation
||The first of the three basic
motions in weaving, in which a shed (q.v.) is formed.
colour effect on a lustrous or shiny fabric in which the
warp yarns and weft yarns are of contrasting colours.
NOTE: The fabric normally has a plain weave
or a 2/2 twill weave when this effect is required.
So to treat a textile fabric as to delay the absorption and
penetration of water.
NOTE: In the case of a fabric, a degree of
permeability to air is retained.
in a dimension of a fibre, yarn or fabric.
NOTE: Shrinkage may be induced by various
treatments, e.g. wetting, steaming, alkali treatment,
laundering, dry heat.
||A yarn package carrier that is
passed through the shed (q.v.) to insert weft during weaving.
produced by a single unit of a spinning machine, extrusion
machine or silk-reeling machine.
||A gelatinous film-forming
substance in solution or dispersion, usually applied to
warps but sometimes to wefts, generally before weaving.
a) The main types of substance used are
carbohydrates and their derivatives, gelatin and animal
glues, linseed oil, polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol.
b) The objects of sizing prior to weaving
are to protect the yarns from abrasion in the healds and the
reed and against each other, to strengthen them and, by the
additional of oils and fats, to lubricate them.
c) A size may be applied to carpets (e.g.
starch) and occasionally to wool fibres (e.g. animal glue).
condition in which the warp and weft yarns, although
straight, are not at right angles to each other.
||A warp yarn that appears
puckered as the result of having been woven under less
tension than the adjacent warp yarns.
||A weft thread
or part of a weft thread that has been woven into the cloth
at a lower tension than the adjacent normal picks.
||A thickened place (in a spun
yarn) that has tapering ends and a diameter several times
that of the adjacent normal yarn.
large hole in a fabric and characterised by many broken warp
ends and floating picks, or a prominent mark that remains
after the repair of such a hole.
||Yarns, fibres or filaments in
the form of long loops that have been drawn out from the
structure of a fabric by a protruding sharp object.
||A short length
of warp or weft yarn that has twisted on itself owing to
lively twist (see twist liveliness) or insufficient tension.
NOTE: The snarling may occur during or
prior to the weaving process.
||Two or more lengths of fabric
that are woven side by side and subsequently separated from
each other by cutting along lines formed by leaving one or
NOTE: Fraying at the cut edges may be
prevented by the use of a leno edge (q.v.) or other suitable
Any adventitious (unwanted) colour, owing to dye,
dirt or iron, on textile material.
NOTE: A severe stain is one that will
b) The fugitive or permanent colouring of
material for identification purposes.
Standard Atmosphere for Testing
Standard Temperature Atmosphere
An atmosphere having a relative humidity of 65 ± 2% and a
temperature of 20 ± 2°C.
b) Standard Tropical Atmosphere
An atmosphere having a relative humidity of 65 ± 2% and a
temperature of 27 ± 2°C.
Standard Condition for Physical Testing
of a textile material that has been dried to approximately
constant mass in an atmosphere that has a relative humidity
not exceeding 10%, and then kept in the appropriate standard
atmosphere for testing (q.v.) until it has reached
NOTE: In cases where a textile material is
not likely to lose volatile matter other than water, or to
change dimensions, the preliminary drying may be carried out
in an oven at 50-60°C situated in the standard atmosphere
for testing which is a convenient way of achieving a
relative humidity of about 10%. When the oven is supplied
with the supplementary standard atmosphere, an oven
temperature of 60-70°C is required. Equilibrium with the
standard atmosphere for testing may be assumed when
successive determinations for mass at intervals of at least
2h show no progressive change exceeding 0,25% in the mass of
the textile material.
||An open-width fabric-finishing
machine in which the selvedges are so held by attachments to
a pair of endless travelling chains that the fabric is
finished to a specified width.
a) Attachments may be pins (pin stenter) or
clips (clip stenter).
b) Such machines are used for:
2. heat-setting of thermoplastic
3. fixation of chemical finishes.
||A form of transfer printing
(q.v.) that uses dyes that sublimate readily and have
substantivity (q.v.) for the substrate to which they are
under the precise conditions of test, between a substrate
and a dye (or other substance) where the latter is
selectively extracted from the application medium by the
||Man-made staple fibres or
filaments produced from polymers derived from chemical
elements or compounds as opposed to those made by man from
naturally occurring fibre-forming polymers.
Selvedge, Cut <selvedge, torn>
||A selvedge in
which three or more adjacent yarns have been severed.
||The process or processes used in
the production of yarns or filaments.
a) This term may apply to the drafting and
twisting of natural or man-made fibres (see continuous
spinning, intermittent spinning, open-end spinning), to the
extrusion of filaments by spiders and silkworms, or to the
production of filaments from glass, metals or fibre-forming
b) In the spinning of man-made filaments,
fibre-forming substances in the plastic or molten state, or
in solution, are forced through the holes of a spinning jet
(q.v.) or die at a controlled rate (extrusion). There are
five general methods of spinning man-made filaments, but a
combination of two (or more) of these methods may also be
used. They are the following:
The process in which polymers that tend to be infusible,
insoluble and generally interactable (e.g.
polytetrafluoroethylene) are dispersed as fine particles
in a carrier, such a sodium aliginate or sodium xanthate
solutions, which permits extrusion into fibres, after
which the dispersed polymer is coalesced by a heating
process; the carrier is removed either by a heating or
by a dissolving process.
2. Dry Spinning
The process in which a solution of the polymer is
extruded into a heated chamber to remove the solvent and
leave the solid filament.
3. Melt Spinning
The process as used in the manufacture of nylon in which
the fibre-forming polymer is melted and extruded into
air or other gas or a suitable liquid, where it is
cooled and solidified.
4. Reaction Spinning
The process in which polymerisation is achieved during
the extrusion through spinning jet (q.v.) system of
5. Wet Spinning
The process as used in the manufacture of viscose rayon
in which the solution of the polymer is extruded into
coagulating media where the polymer is regenerated.
c) In the bast fibre and leaf fibre
industries, the terms "dry spinning" and "wet spinning"
refer to the spinning of fibres in the drystate and in the
wet state, respectively.
Selvedge, Jacquard <jacquard selvedge>
that has a jacquard-woven pattern or lettering.
|A continous-filament thread that
has lost some of its filaments, usually as a result of
abrasion or excessive tension during winding or weft
insertion and that appears as a thin yarn.
that is tighter than the adjacent fabric owing to incorrect
balance of the fabric structure between the ground and the
selvedges, or owing to the selvedge ends being woven at too
high a tension.
Tearing Strength (Fabric)
to the force that is required to start or to continue a tear
in a fabric when tested under prescribed conditions
appropriate to the fabric.
||A disturbance of the weave
adjacent to the edge of a fabric and caused by a poorly
specific strength of a fibre or yarn that is developed in a
tensile test taken to rupture point.
||The breaking strength (q.v.) per
unit area of the cross-section of a textile material.
NOTE: The use of this term as a synonym for
"breaking strength" is incorrect.
||The basic unit
of the tex system (q.v.) and that is equal to one gram per
NOTE: The multiple and submultiples
recommended for use are the following:
||The direct decimal system based
on metric units that has been adopted by ISO as a universal
system for designating the linear density of fibres,
filaments, slivers and yarns.
manufactured from natural or man-made fibres or filaments,
e.g. yarns, threads, cords, ropes, braids, lace, embroidery,
nets and fabrics made by weaving, knitting, braiding,
felting, bonding and tufting.
||A yarn that has
been so processed as to introduce durable crimps (q.v.),
coils, loops or other fine distortions along the length of
the fibres or filaments.
a) The main texturing processes usually applied to
continuous-filament yarns made from or containing
thermoplastic fibres, are as follows:
||1. The yarn
is highly twisted, heat-set and untwisted, either as a
continuous process (false twisting) or as a three-stage
2. The yarn is passed through a heated
"stuffer box" (stuffer box crimping).
3. The heated yarn is passed over a
knife edge (edge crimping).
4. The heated yarn is passed between a
pair of geared wheels or some similar device (gear
5. The yarn is knitted into a fabric,
heat-set and unravelled (knit-deknit).
6. Loops are formed in individual
filaments by over-feeding into a turbulent airstream (air-textured).
7. Bicomponent Fibres (q.v.) are
b) Processes (1) and (3) above produce
yarns of a generally high stretch character. This stretch
character is frequently reduced by reheating the yarn in a
state where it is only partly relaxed from the fully
extended condition, thus producing a yarn with the bulkiness
little reduced but with a much reduced retractive power.
c) Fabrics that contain textured yarns have
increased bulk, opacity, and moisture absorbency and
improved thermal insulation properties with a warmer handle
(q.v.); some textured yarns also confer extensible or "stretch"
properties on fabrics made from them.
||A textile that
is deformable (but not changed chemically) by the
application of heat and pressure.
NOTE: The salient feature is that the
deformation can be repeated.
band (q.v.) in which there is an increase in the pick
density of a woven fabric or in the stitch density of a
knitted fabric, compared with that of the normal fabric.
band (q.v.) in which there is a decrease in the pick density
of a woven fabric or in the stitch density of a knitted
fabric, compared with that of the normal fabric.
||a) The result
of twisting together, in one or more operations, two or more
single, folded or cabled yarns (see under yarn).
b) A product as defined in (a) above and
intended primarily for sewing purposes and known as a sewing
c) A component of silk yarn, and that is
the product of winding together, without twist, a number of
baves (q.v.), e.g. a 3-thread silk yarn is the result of
folding three such products together.
1. The term "thread" is frequently used to
describe single yarns.
2. The term "thread" is also used in such
expressions as "threads per unit length", irrespective of
Threads Per Square Centimetre
||The sum of the
number of warps threads per centimetre and the number of
weft threads per centimetre in a woven fabric.
Threads Per Unit Length (Woven Fabrics)
||The number of warp threads (ends)
or the number of weft threads (picks) in a specified length
a) The unit of length is usually taken as
the centimetre, but with fabrics that have less than 10
threads per centimetre, it is advisable to use a unit length
of 1 decimetre (10cm).
b) With fabrics that have more than 10
threads per centimetre, the actual count may be taken over
2cm, 3cm or 5cm and the result given by calculation in
threads per centimetre.
c) Counting may be done at the following
stages of manufacture:
The count is taken when no further processing in the
piece is prescribed. In all cases, the condition of the
fabric at the time the count was taken should be noted.
2. In the Loom
The position of the count should be agreed on. It is
usually taken between the fell of the fabric and the
take-up roller, with the fabric under weaving tension.
The count is taken after the fabric has been removed
from the loom and relaxed from weaving tension, but
before it is subjected to any further treatment that may
modify its dimensions.
||A waste length
of warp (yarn) or of fabric, or both, formed during the
preparation of a loom for weaving.
a) A thrum may be formed as follows:
the adjustment of a loom at the commencement of the
weaving of the warp. When the loom is correctly adjusted,
the portion of the warp that contains picks inserted for
testing the adjustment of the loom mechanism is cut off.
2. During warp replenishment in a loom.
The old warp is twisted or knotted to the new warp and,
if the new warp is drawn through by weaving, the point
in the woven fabric at which the twisted or knitted warp
ends occur is called a "through" because the fabric is
cut through to remove the thrum containing the imperfect
fabric formed by the twisted or knotted warp ends.
3. During loom operations away from the
In the above cases, a thrum consists of portions of the
old and the new warp ends twisted or knotted together.
b) A thrum may also be:
||1. A length
of warp ends cut from the warp for the purpose of:
(i) evaluating the percentage of applied size;
(ii) repairing end-breakages in the warp concerned;
2. Any loose end(s) of warp;
3. A bundle of coarse yarns tied
together by twine for use in making a mop.
||A warp thread or part of a warp
thread that has less crimp in the fabric than have the
adjacent normal ends.
NOTE: This may be owing to weaving under
greater tension or to abnormal stretching of the yarn during
some process prior to weaving. It may be caused by excess
moisture, e.g. during winding, and consequent contraction
||A weft thread
or part of a weft thread that has less crimp than have the
adjacent normal picks.
NOTE: This may be owing to a weft yarn having been
inserted under greater tension than that imposed on the
other weft yarns, or to the relaxation of a weft yarn
subsequent to insertion, or to abnormal stretching of a yarn
during some process prior to weaving. It may also be caused
by the presence of excess moisture, e.g. during winding, and
consequent contraction during finishing. (See also shiner).
||a) A weave that
repeats on three or more ends and picks and produces
diagonal lines on the face of the fabric.
b) A fabric that has the above weave.
diagonal lines produced on the surface of the fabric by
a twill weave are often referred to as the twill in such
phrases as "a prominent twill", "a broken twill", "unwanted
2. Unwanted twill may arise as a defect
in satin fabrics, the intensity of the unwanted twill
depending on the fabric structure, the weave and the
number of ends (q.v.) per dent (q.v.) in the reed.
The spiral disposition of the component (s) of a yarn and
that is usually the result of relative rotation of the
extremities of the yarn (s).
b) The number of turns per unit length of
yarn, e.g. turns per metre.
||1. Twist in
2. Twist in Folded Yarns
ZZ twist -on-twist (q.v.)
SS twist -on-twist (q.v.)
3. Twist in Cabled Yarns
ZSZ twist (formerly "cabled twist")
ZZS twist (formerly "hawser twist")
The first symbol designates the direction of twist in a
single yarn, the second symbol designates the direction of
twist in the folding operation, and the third symbol the
direction of twist in the cabling operation.
|A measure of the "twist hardness"
of a single yarn, determined by the multiplication of the
turns per unit length by the square root of the linear
density of the tex system .
caused by unbalanced torsional forces in any yarn, and of
sufficient magnitude to give rise to difficulties in
processing or defects in the resulting fabric.
NOTE: Examples of this are snarling (see
snarl) in processing and spirality (q.v.) in knitted fabric.
||A dyed area of
obtained by dissolving cellulose xanthate in a dilute
solution of caustic soda.
||The generic name for fibres
formed by the regeneration of cellulose from viscose (q.v.)
by treatment with a solution of electrolytes (salts and
acids). (See also spinning bath).
The internal resistance to flow of a fluid.
A term applied specifically to signify the viscosity (see
(a) above) of a standard solution of cellulose in
cuprammonium hydroxide solution of specified copper and
NOTE: The flow behaviour of a mixing is best
described by a flow curve relating apparent viscosity (in
mPa.s) to shearing stress (in Pa). If the shearing stresses
operative in the sizing were known, the apparent viscosities
of the mixings at these stresses would be related to their
sizing behaviour. Without this knowledge, measurements at
some arbitrary stress (say 100 Pa) have to be used. These
are of value in characterising a particular type of size and
can often be related to the take-up of size by the warp.
Threads lengthways in a fabric as woven.
b) A number of threads in long lengths and
approximately parallel, which may be in various forms
intended for weaving, knitting, doubling, sizing, dyeing or
threads in long lengths parallel to one another preparatory
to further processing.
In addition to beaming, the following methods of warping are
practised: ball warping, cross-ball warping and chain
warping. The primary stage of these methods of warping is
the withdrawal of the ends from a warping creel and their
assembly in rope form, a form that may conveniently be used
for wet processing. For convenience of handling, this rope
a) wound into a ball (ball warping);
b) machine-wound onto a wooden roller into
a cross-ball cheese (cross-ball or cheese-ball warping);
c) shortened into a link chain (chain
A number of these ropes may be assembled into a complete
warp on a beam in a dressing frame, or may be split and
dressed and incorporated in warps made by other methods. (See
also section warping).
the warp yarn from a straight line; alternatively, curvature
of the warp yarns.
||An aqueous detergent solution
used for the physical removal of extraneous substances from
||A type of
finish applied to a textile fabric and that prevents the
spreading of globules of water over its surface.
NOTE: The term is normally not applied to a
water-repellent finish that is impervious to air; this is
generally referred to as "waterproof".
||a) The action
of atmospheric agencies or elements on substances exposed to
b) The discoloration, disintergration, etc.,
that results from this action.
||The pattern of
the interlacing of warp and weft in a woven fabric (q.v.).
||To form a fabric by the
interlacing of warp and weft.
Width-way threads as woven in a fabric.
b) Yarn intended for use as in (a) above.
||A woven or a
braided narrow fabric or a yarn or a group of yarns that
has/have particularly good capillary properties.
produced by interlacing warp and weft.
product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section
and that consists of fibres (q.v.) or filament(s) (q.v.) (or
both) with or without twist.
a) Assemblies of fibres or filaments are
usually given other names during the stages that lead to the
production of yarn, e.g. tow, slubbing, sliver, roving
(q.v.). Except in the case of continuous-filament fibres or
tape yarns, any tensile strength possessed by assemblies at
these stages would generally be the minimum that would hold
them together during processing.
b) Staple, continuous-filament and
monofilament yarns are included.
c) No distinction is made between single
and cabled yarns.
d) Zero-twist and self-twist staple yarns
e) Zero-twist continuous-filament yarns are
f) By the definition of fibre and filament,
paper, metal-film and glass yarns are included.
|Two or more yarns (at least one
of which is folded) (see yarn, doubled) that have been
twisted together in one or more operations.
a) Combinations of folded yarns and single
yarns may be described as cabled yarns, e.g. a single yarn
is twisted together with two folded yarns to give softness
to the resulting yarn.
b) In the tyre-yarn and cord sections of
the textile industry, cabled yarns are termed "cable cords"
or "cords". These terms include two-fold continuous-filament
man-made fibre yarns, a traditional example being 1 830 dtex
rayon cord, single twist 480 t/m (Z), and cabled twist 480
c) For terms concerning twist designation
in cabled yarns, see twist (b).
Yarn, Doubled <doubled yarn, folded yarn, plied yarn>
||A yarn in
which two or more single yarns are twisted together in one
operation, e.g. two-fold yarn, three-fold yarn, etc.
NOTE:In some sections of the textile
industry, e.g. the marketing of hand-knitting yarns, these
yarns would be referred to as "two-ply", "three-ply", etc.
Beşiktaş, Kadıköy, Kartal vs.
ilçelerde de sürmektedir.
Öğrencilerim "İş İngilizcesi"nin
yanısıra İngilizce'nin Kpds,
Üds, Toefl gibi diğer
başarılara imza atmaktadır.